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Nigeria Facts and Figures from Encarta
Basic Facts
Official name Federal Republic of Nigeria
Capital Abuja
Area 923,768 sq km
356,669 sq mi
Population 133,881,700 (2003 estimate)
Population growth
Population growth rate 2.52 percent (2003 estimate)
Projected population in 2025 206,397,510 (2025 estimate)
Projected population in 2050 307,420,055 (2050 estimate)
Population density 145 persons per sq km (2003 estimate)
375 persons per sq mi (2003 estimate)
Urban/rural distribution
Share urban 45 percent (2001 estimate)
Share rural 55 percent (2001 estimate)
Largest cities, with population
Lagos 13,427,000 (2000 estimate)
Ibadan 1,731,000 (2000 estimate)
Ogbomosho 711,900 (1995 estimate)
Kano 657,300 (1995 estimate)
Oshogbo 465,000 (1995 estimate)
Ethnic groups
Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbos 71 percent
NOTE: The Hausa and Fulani live mostly in the north, the Yoruba in the southwest, and the Igbos in the southeast.
Other groups 29 percent
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo, Fulfulde, other indigenous languages
Religious affiliations
Christian 46 percent
Muslim 44 percent
Indigenous beliefs 10 percent
Health and Education
Life expectancy
Total 51 years (2003 estimate)
Female 51.1 years (2003 estimate)
Male 50.9 years (2003 estimate)
Infant mortality rate 71 deaths per 1,000 live births (2003 estimate)
Population per physician 5,208 people (1993)
Population per hospital bed 599 people (1990)
Literacy rate
Total 68 percent (2003 estimate)
Female 60.6 percent (2003 estimate)
Male 75.7 percent (2003 estimate)
Education expenditure as a share of gross national product (GNP) 0.7 percent (1999-2000)
Number of years of compulsory schooling 6 years (2000)
Number of students per teacher, primary school 37 students per teacher (1997)
Form of government
Federal Republic; An elected president took office on 29 May 1999, ending 15 years of military rule in Nigeria.
Head of state President
Head of government President
Legislature Bicameral legislature
House of Representatives: 360 members
Senate: 109 senators
Voting qualifications Universal at age 18
Constitution 5 May 1999
Highest court Supreme Court
Armed forces Army, Navy, Air Force
Total number of military personnel 78,500 (2001)
Military expenditures as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) 1.3 percent (2001)
First-level political divisions 36 states and 1 federal capital territory
Gross domestic product (GDP, in U.S.$) $41.4 billion (2001)
GDP per capita (U.S.$) $320 (2001)
GDP by economic sector
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 29.5 percent (2000)
Industry 46 percent (2000)
Services 24.5 percent (2000)
Number of workers 51,625,303 (2001)
Workforce share of economic sector
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 3 percent (1995)
Industry 22 percent (1995)
Services 75 percent (1995)
Unemployment rate 3.2 percent (1997)
National budget (U.S.$)
Total revenue $11,408 million (1995 estimate)
Total expenditure $11,722 million (1995 estimate)
Monetary unit 1 naira (N), consisting of 100 kobo
Palm oil, peanut oil, rubber, cacao, cotton, sorghum, millet, maize (corn), yams, cassava, timber, and livestock
Petroleum, natural gas, coal, tin, columbite, limestone, iron ore, lead, zinc, gypsum, barite, kaolin
Food products, brewed beverages, refined petroleum, iron and steel, motor vehicles, textiles, footwear, pulp and paper
Major exports
Petroleum, cacao beans, rubber, shrimp
Major imports
Machinery and transportation equipment, manufactured goods (mostly iron and steel, textiles, and paper products), chemicals, food products
Major trade partners for exports
United States, Spain, India, France, and Brazil
Major trade partners for imports
United Kingdom, United States, France, Germany, and China
Energy, Communications, and Transportation
Electricity production
Electricity from thermal sources 61.94 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from hydroelectric sources 38.06 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from nuclear sources 0 percent (2001 estimate)
Electricity from geothermal, solar, and wind sources 0 percent (2001 estimate)
Number of radios per 1,000 people 226 (1997)
Number of telephones per 1,000 people 5 (2001)
Number of televisions per 1,000 people 66 (2000 estimate)
Number of Internet hosts per 10,000 people 0.06 (2001)
Daily newspaper circulation per 1,000 people 24 (1996)
Number of motor vehicles per 1,000 people 12 (1997)
Paved road as a share of total roads 31 percent (1999)
Basic Facts and People sections
Area data are from the statistical bureaus of individual countries. Population, population growth rate, and population projections are from the United States Census Bureau, International Programs Center, International Data Base (IDB) (www.census.gov). Urban and rural population data are from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), FAOSTAT database (www.fao.org). Largest cities population data and political divisions data are from the statistical bureaus of individual countries. Ethnic divisions and religion data are largely from the latest Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook and from various country censuses and reports. Language data are largely from the Ethnologue, Languages of the World, Summer Institute of Linguistics International (www.sil.org).
Health and Education section
Life expectancy and infant mortality data are from the United States Census Bureau, International Programs Center, International database (IDB) (www.census.gov). Population per physician and population per hospital bed data are from the World Health Organization (WHO) (www.who.int). Education data are from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database (www.unesco.org).
Government section
Government, independence, legislature, constitution, highest court, and voting qualifications data are largely from various government Web sites, the latest Europa World Yearbook, and the latest Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook. The armed forces data is from Military Balance.
Economy section
Gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, GDP by economic sectors, employment, and national budget data are from the World Bank database (www.worldbank.org). Monetary unit, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, exports, imports, and major trade partner information is from the latest Europa World Yearbook and various International Monetary Fund (IMF) publications.
Energy, Communication, and Transportation section
Electricity information is from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) database (www.eia.doe.gov). Radio, telephone, television, and newspaper information is from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) database (www.unesco.org). Internet hosts, motor vehicles, and road data are from the World Bank database (www.worldbank.org).
Figures may not total 100 percent due to rounding.